Phish Anatomy

I receive four or five of these sorts of phishing emails a week so I thought I’d take a quick look at one and see how it’s put together.

Firstly a poorly constructed message from my- or more often someone else’s bank/tax office. Note capitalisation, lack of whitespace after fullstop in the first sentence, no currency denomination (e.g. £) for the amount but a realistic sum of money, definitely not $10,000,000 from the office of former attorney general Utoula of Lagos. Also note the threat of a deadline, even though none is stated.

Dear Applicant:

we have reviewed your tax return and our calculations of your last years accounts a tax refund of 178.25 is due.Please submit the tax refund request and allow us 3-6 days in order to process it.

A refund can be delayed for a variety of reasons.
For example submitting invalid records or applying after the deadline.

Submit the form attached to your email in order to verify your card.

with an attachment: return_form.html . Who sends a plain text email with an attached HTML file? Nobody except scammers, that’s who. Saving out return_form.html (without the .html extension, for safety) and having a look I found this at the top:

<script type="text/javascript" language="JavaScript">// < ![CDATA[
// Copyright © 2005 Voormedia - WWW.VOORMEDIA.COM
var i,y,x="3c21444f43545950452048544d4c205055424c494320222d2f2f5733432f2f44544420485

and this at the bottom:

for(i=0;i < x.length;i+=2){y+=unescape('%'+x.substr(i,2));}document.write(y);
// ]]>

(I’ve cut out the middle section because it’s long and I’m only interested in the techniques.)

So this is an obfuscated html page, entirely URL-encoded and embedded in a javascript string with a little bit of decoding tacked on the end. This is simple, but quite neat. Not a technique I’ve ever used to do anything “production” with. I cut the string out, saved it to a file and decoded it on the command line using

perl -MCGI -e '$str= <>;for (my $i=0;$i < length $str;$i+=2){
  print CGI::unescape(sprintf q[%%%s], substr $str, $i,2)
}' < > return_form.decoded

The decoded page contains an HTML form requesting name, email address, physical address, card number, mother’s maiden name, phone number, national insurance number and bank account details where refund payment is to be made, including CVV. It posts all that delicious data over to … woah hold on, that’s not the HMRC is it?

<td><form name="processForm" method="post" action="" OnSubmit="return go_step2();">

So who is it?

host domain name pointer

An Italian Vodafone DSL customer, probably a hacked home PC, most likely part of a botnet infected by a virus of some sort.

Let’s try poking the service:

wget -O-
--2011-10-25 13:40:49--
Connecting to connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 302 Found
Location: [following]

ok, that was a GET request and the script expects a POST, but it still bounces us straight out to, presumably logging whatever data was sent back in a database or IRC channel somewhere whilst leaving the unsuspecting user none the wiser.

What about running services? Ok, let’s use nmap:

nmap -PN

Starting Nmap 5.51 ( ) at 2011-10-25 13:44 BST
Nmap scan report for (
Host is up (0.10s latency).
Not shown: 990 closed ports
80/tcp open http
135/tcp open msrpc
139/tcp open netbios-ssn
445/tcp open microsoft-ds
1027/tcp open IIS
1244/tcp open isbconference1
1433/tcp open ms-sql-s
1720/tcp filtered H.323/Q.931
3306/tcp open mysql
3389/tcp open ms-term-serv

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 7.69 seconds

So it’s running a few bits and pieces, things you wouldn’t normally open up given the choice..

wget -O- -q | grep -i title
<title>WAMPSERVER Homepage</title>

WAMP is a LAMP software stack built for Windows consisting of Apache, MySQL and PHP which explains some of the services this thing is running.

Here I paused and went back to look at the message headers.

Return-Path: < hmrc>
< snip >
Received: from User ([]) by with Microsoft SMTPSVC(6.0.3790.4675);
	 Tue, 25 Oct 2011 15:54:42 +0400
From: "HMRC"< hmrc>
Subject: ***SPAM*** We have reviewed your tax return
Date: Tue, 25 Oct 2011 07:54:42 -0400
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed;
X-Priority: 3
X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 6.00.2600.0000
X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V6.00.2600.0000
Message-ID: < maindclqgdyxsvvr0ws0000024a>
X-OriginalArrivalTime: 25 Oct 2011 11:54:42.0679 (UTC) FILETIME=[E1F60870:01CC930C]
To: undisclosed-recipients:;

A few things to highlight here – firsly the return address is (probably fictitious) not, as doing so could generate a large number of bounced messages sent back to HMRC and alerting them that there’s a phisher out there. Not that they can really do anything about it beyond cyber-investigation, but always good to keep things on the QT.

Ignoring the fact that my MTA has flagged the subject as SPAM, the original SMTP server shows up as . Riiight, a UK Tax email sent through a mail server in Russia.

Back to the spam detection. The headers injected by my MTA look like this:

X-Virus-Scanned: Debian amavisd-new at
X-Spam-Flag: YES
X-Spam-Score: 6.105
X-Spam-Level: ******
X-Spam-Status: Yes, score=6.105 tagged_above=-9999 required=4.8
	T_FROM_MISSPACED=0.01] autolearn=no

Good. Forged Mail User Agent, which isn’t something you might easily spot visually, and blacklisted in spamcop to boot.

Conclusions? Firstly don’t open attachments from untrusted sources. Duh, like I needed to tell you that. Secondly this is a UK-targetted scam, hosted on an Italian computer (probably) originating from Russia. This stuff is real

XBMC on Ubuntu 11.10 Oneric Ocelot

Yesterday I upgraded my XBMC media centre, an Acer (bleugh!) Revo 3610 from Ubuntu 10.10 to 11.10 (Oneric Ocelot).

The upgrade itself went fine but (re)installed a few things I’d previously removed, things I didn’t want and things which break a few XBMC features. This is what I had to do to reset things:

  1. Reset the xbmc user’s login session to ‘custom session’ using the gear icon on the top-right of the login window
  2. Add a .xsession file containing
    exec xbmc

    and chmod +x .xsession

  3. apt-get remove nautilus ubufox xul-ext-ubufox network-manager* pulseaudio
  4. Reset network settings (e.g. /etc/resolv.conf) if you made the mistake of logging in, resulting in NetworkManager resetting everything
  5. Check your xbmc user is still in the ‘audio’ group
  6. apt-add-repository ppa:ubuntu-x-swat/x-updates
  7. apt-get update
  8. apt-get install nvidia-current # if you hadn’t previously done this
  9. apt-get dist-upgrade
  10. apt-get autoremove

It’s probably worth saying I use plain stereo output from the headphone jack, and a Grand Hand III VGA adapter rather than HDMI because my TV is about 9 years old.

Bookmarks for October 4th through October 11th

These are my links for October 4th through October 11th: